Virat Kohli, who rested while India demolished Sri Lanka in their ODI series, returns to lead his side in six ODIs against South Africa in February.
His vice-captain is Rohit Sharma, who recently became the first player ever to hit three double centuries in ODIs.
Seamers Shardul Thakur and Mohammed Shami have been recalled to the squad.
Kedar Jadhav, who suffered a hamstring injury in early December and has not played any cricket since, has also been picked. Making way for the returning first-choice players were fast bowler Siddharth Kaul, who remains uncapped, and 18-year-old all-rounder Washington Sundar.
The selectors continued to put their faith into wrist spinners Yuzvendra Chahal and Kuldeep Yadav while ignoring seniors Ravindra Jadeja and Ravichandran Ashwin.
After suffering a shock loss in the first of their three ODIs against Sri Lanka, the Indians pulled themselves together to win by 141 runs and then by eight wickets.
India ODI squad: Virat Kohli (c), Rohit Sharma (vc), Shikhar Dhawan, Ajinkya Rahane, Shreyas Iyer, Manish Pandey, Kedar Jadhav, Dinesh Karthik, MS Dhoni (wk), Axar Patel, Yuzvendra Chahal, Kuldeep Yadav, Jasprit Bumrah, Bhuvneshwar Kumar, Hardik Pandya, Mohammed Shami, Shardul Thakur.